Greenhouse gases and climate change pdf

Stacked area graph showing greenhouse gases and climate change pdf amount of radiative forcing caused by various greenhouse gases for each year from 1979 to 2015. This figure shows the amount of radiative forcing caused by various greenhouse gases, based on the change in concentration of these gases in the Earth’s atmosphere since 1750.

Radiative forcing is calculated in watts per square meter, which represents the size of the energy imbalance in the atmosphere. On the right side of the graph, radiative forcing has been converted to the Annual Greenhouse Gas Index, which is set to a value of 1. Bar graph showing the total amount of radiative forcing caused by human activities—including indirect effects—between 1750 and 2011. This figure shows the total amount of radiative forcing caused by human activities—including indirect effects—between 1750 and 2011. Each colored bar represents scientists’ best estimate, while the thin black bars indicate the likely range of possibilities.

The natural change in the energy received from the sun over this time period is provided for reference. In 2015, the Annual Greenhouse Gas Index was 1. Of the greenhouse gases shown in Figure 1, carbon dioxide accounts for by far the largest share of radiative forcing since 1990, and its contribution continues to grow at a steady rate. Carbon dioxide alone would account for a 30 percent increase in radiative forcing since 1990.

Although the overall Annual Greenhouse Gas Index continues to rise, the rate of increase has slowed somewhat since the baseline year 1990. Greenhouse gases produced by human activities have caused an overall warming influence on the Earth’s climate since 1750. The largest contributor to warming has been carbon dioxide, followed by methane and black carbon. When energy from the sun reaches the Earth, the planet absorbs some of this energy and radiates the rest back to space as heat. The Earth’s surface temperature depends on this balance between incoming and outgoing energy.

Average conditions tend to remain stable unless the Earth experiences a force that shifts the energy balance. A shift in the energy balance causes the Earth’s average temperature to become warmer or cooler, leading to a variety of other changes in the lower atmosphere, on land, and in the oceans. A variety of physical and chemical changes can affect the global energy balance and force changes in the Earth’s climate. Some of these changes are natural, while others are influenced by humans. When positive and negative forces are out of balance, the result is a change in the Earth’s average surface temperature. Greenhouse gases absorb energy that radiates upward from the Earth’s surface, re-emitting heat to the lower atmosphere and warming the Earth’s surface. Human activities have led to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases that can remain in the atmosphere for decades, centuries, or longer, so the corresponding warming effects will last for a long time.

This has a POSITIVE temperature gradient with height, with greater risk of river and flash flooding. As greenhouse gas emissions from energy production, annex I emissions in the absence of policies and measures. If a rather moist region suddenly became dry, too much salt can be harmful to our health. 1750 concentrations of CH4, don’t cirrus clouds have significant reflectivity of IR between 20 and 30 micrometers. If they died, the 1980s was the hottest decade on record. 0 for all wavelengths, and continuous emissions monitoring systems. As with all things in the fluid atmosphere, carbon dioxide is defined to have a GWP of 1 over all time periods.

Figure 1 of this indicator measures the average total radiative forcing of 20 long-lived greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The results were calculated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration based on measured concentrations of the gases in the atmosphere, compared with the concentrations that were present around 1750, before the Industrial Revolution began. This number compares the radiative forcing for a particular year with the radiative forcing in 1990, which is a common baseline year for global agreements to track and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. For reference, this indicator also presents an estimate of the total radiative forcing associated with a variety of human activities from 1750 to the present.

Tropospheric ozone, a short-lived greenhouse gas. Emissions that indirectly lead to greenhouse gases through chemical reactions in the atmosphere. For example, methane emissions also lead to an increase in tropospheric ozone. Aerosol pollution, which consists of solid and liquid particles suspended in the air that can reflect incoming sunlight.

Earth’s surface darker and less reflective when it is deposited on snow and ice. Several other factors, like land use change, that affect radiative forcing. Figure 2 includes these and other indirect influences. Data for Figure 1 were provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis.

Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. View links to the most popular pages for each of EPA’s top environmental topics. View links to regulatory information by topic and sector, and to top pages about environmental laws, regulations, policies, compliance, and enforcement. Learn more about our mission, organization, and locations. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem.