The test allows to control for all transactions, delivering clear-cut accounting principles 16th edition fees and warren pdf free download. How do banks operate and where does the money supply come from? The financial crisis has heightened awareness that these questions have been unduly neglected by many researchers.
The theories differ in their accounting treatment of bank lending as well as in their policy implications. Moreover, the theory of banks as intermediaries provides the rationale for capital adequacy-based bank regulation. Should this theory not be correct, currently prevailing economics modelling and policy-making would be without empirical foundation. Despite the importance of this question, so far only one empirical test of the three theories has been reported in learned journals. This paper presents a second empirical test, using an alternative methodology, which allows control for all other factors.
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The financial intermediation and the fractional reserve theories of banking are rejected by the evidence. This finding throws doubt on the rationale for regulating bank capital adequacy to avoid banking crises, as the case study of Credit Suisse during the crisis illustrates. The finding indicates that advice to encourage developing countries to borrow from abroad is misguided. The question is considered why the economics profession has failed over most of the past century to make any progress concerning knowledge of the monetary system, and why it instead moved ever further away from the truth as already recognised by the credit creation theory well over a century ago. The role of conflicts of interest and interested parties in shaping the current bank-free academic consensus is discussed.
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A number of avenues for needed further research are indicated. The author would like to thank Mr. Michael Betzenbichler, directors of Raiffeisenbank Wildenberg e. Rebl’s ideas and suggestions the test reported in this paper would not have taken place. The author also wishes to thank Plamen Ivanov and Shamsher Dhanda for their capable research assistance. Many thanks to Professor Brian Lucey, the editor, and Dr. Duc Nguyen, the editor of the special issue, and to a capable anonymous referee for pertinent and helpful comments.